Introduction To C (and C) Programming
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C is a procedural programming language initially developed by Dennis Ritchie in the year 1972 at Bell Laboratories of AT&T Labs. It was mainly developed as a system programming language to write the UNIX operating system.
So, if a person learns C programming first, it will help him to learn any modern programming language as well. As learning C help to understand a lot of the underlying architecture of the operating system. Like pointers, working with memory locations, etc.
C is probably the most widely known programming language. It is used as the reference language for computer science courses all over the world, and it's probably the language that people learn the most in school along with Python and Java.
With all those operators (and more, which I haven't covered in this post, including bitwise, structure operators, and pointer operators), we must pay attention when using them together in a single expression.
Having this option to break out of a loop is particularly interesting for while loops (and do while too), because we can create seemingly infinite loops that end when a condition occurs. You define this inside the loop block:
The final course in the specialization Introduction to Programming in C will teach you powerful new programming techniques for interacting with the user and the system and dynamically allocating memory. You will learn more sophisticated uses for pointers, such as strings and multidimensional arrays, as well as how to write programs that read and write files and take input from the user. Learning about dynamic memory allocation will allow your programs to perform complex tasks that will be applied in the final part of the specialization project: a Monte Carlo simulation for calculating poker hand probabilities.
This specialization is for learners who have an interest in learning how to program, for people with no programming experience or for people with some experience who would like to gain solid fundamentals and a deeper understanding of how to program effectively.
If you are new to programming, you should take the courses in order. Otherwise, you could start with Course 2 or Course 3, depending on your previous experience. Intermediate programmers new to C may like to start with Course 1 to learn the basics of syntax (and review algorithm design relevant to all languages).
A successor to the programming language B, C was originally developed at Bell Labs by Ritchie between 1972 and 1973 to construct utilities running on Unix. It was applied to re-implementing the kernel of the Unix operating system. During the 1980s, C gradually gained popularity. It has become one of the most widely used programming languages, with C compilers available for practically all modern computer architectures and operating systems. C has been standardized by ANSI since 1989 (ANSI C) and by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
C is an imperative procedural language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, with a static type system. It was designed to be compiled to provide low-level access to memory and language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, all with minimal runtime support. Despite its low-level capabilities, the language was designed to encourage cross-platform programming. A standards-compliant C program written with portability in mind can be compiled for a wide variety of computer platforms and operating systems with few changes to its source code.
C is an imperative, procedural language in the ALGOL tradition. It has a static type system. In C, all executable code is contained within subroutines (also called \"functions\", though not in the sense of functional programming). Function parameters are passed by value, although arrays are passed as pointers, i.e. the address of the first item in the array. Pass-by-reference is simulated in C by explicitly passing pointers to the thing being referenced.
Thompson wanted a programming language for developing utilities for the new platform. At first, he tried to write a Fortran compiler, but soon gave up the idea. Instead, he created a cut-down version of the recently developed BCPL systems programming language. The official description of BCPL was not available at the time and Thompson modified the syntax to be less wordy, and similar to a simplified ALGOL known as SMALGOL. Thompson called the result B. He described B as \"BCPL semantics with a lot of SMALGOL syntax\". Like BCPL, B had a bootstrapping compiler to facilitate porting to new machines. However, few utilities were ultimately written in B because it was too slow, and could not take advantage of PDP-11 features such as byte addressability.
In 1990, the ANSI C standard (with formatting changes) was adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as ISO/IEC 9899:1990, which is sometimes called C90. Therefore, the terms \"C89\" and \"C90\" refer to the same programming language.
Published in June 2018 as ISO/IEC 9899:2018, C17 is the current standard for the C programming language. It introduces no new language features, only technical corrections, and clarifications to defects in C11. The standard macro __STDC_VERSION__ is defined as 201710L.
Historically, embedded C programming requires nonstandard extensions to the C language in order to support exotic features such as fixed-point arithmetic, multiple distinct memory banks, and basic I/O operations.
As an imperative language, C uses statements to specify actions. The most common statement is an expression statement, consisting of an expression to be evaluated, followed by a semicolon; as a side effect of the evaluation, functions may be called and variables may be assigned new values. To modify the normal sequential execution of statements, C provides several control-flow statements identified by reserved keywords. Structured programming is supported by if ... [else] conditional execution and by do ... while, while, and for iterative execution (looping). The for statement has separate initialization, testing, and reinitialization expressions, any or all of which can be omitted. break and continue can be used within the loop. Break is used to leave the innermost enclosing loop statement and continue is used to skip to its reinitialisation. There is also a non-structured goto statement which branches directly to the designated label within the function. switch selects a case to be executed based on the value of an integer expression. Different from many other languages, control-flow will fall through to the next case unless terminated by a break.
Expressions can use a variety of built-in operators and may contain function calls. The order in which arguments to functions and operands to most operators are evaluated is unspecified. The evaluations may even be interleaved. However, all side effects (including storage to variables) will occur before the next \"sequence point\"; sequence points include the end of each expression statement, and the entry to and return from each function call. Sequence points also occur during evaluation of expressions containing certain operators (&&, , : and the comma operator). This permits a high degree of object code optimization by the compiler, but requires C programmers to take more care to obtain reliable results than is needed for other programming languages.
Most of the recently reserved words begin with an underscore followed by a capital letter, because identifiers of that form were previously reserved by the C standard for use only by implementations. Since existing program source code should not have been using these identifiers, it would not be affected when C implementations started supporting these extensions to the programming language. Some standard headers do define more convenient synonyms for underscored identifiers. The language previously included a reserved word called entry, but this was seldom implemented, and has now[when] been removed as a reserved word.
The \"hello, world\" example, which appeared in the first edition of K&R, has become the model for an introductory program in most programming textbooks. The program prints \"hello, world\" to the standard output, which is usually a terminal or screen display.
C is often used in low-level systems programming where escapes from the type system may be necessary. The compiler attempts to ensure type correctness of most expressions, but the programmer can override the checks in various ways, either by using a type cast to explicitly convert a value from one type to another, or by using pointers or unions to reinterpret the underlying bits of a data object in some other way.
Void pointers (void *) point to objects of unspecified type, and can therefore be used as \"generic\" data pointers. Since the size and type of the pointed-to object is not known, void pointers cannot be dereferenced, nor is pointer arithmetic on them allowed, although they can easily be (and in many contexts implicitly are) converted to and from any other object pointer type.
Careless use of pointers is potentially dangerous. Because they are typically unchecked, a pointer variable can be made to point to any arbitrary location, which can cause undesirable effects. Although properly used pointers point to safe places, they can be made to point to unsafe places by using invalid pointer arithmetic; the objects they point to may continue to be used after deallocation (dangling pointers); they may be used without having been initialized (wild pointers); or they may be directly assigned an unsafe value using a cast, union, or through another corrupt pointer. In general, C is permissive in allowing manipulation of and conversion between pointer types, although compilers typically provide options for various levels of checking. Some other programming languages address these problems by using more restrictive reference types. 59ce067264